Connecting with Java Web services

BEA WebLogic, IBM WebSphere, JBoss, and Sybase EAServer plug in to the next wave of Web apps

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Web services promise a brave new world of easy software integration using XML and the Web. Because they’re based on XML, Web services have the potential to serve as platform-independent glue between applications coded in different programming languages and running on disparate operating systems. Many describe this ability as the Holy Grail of distributed computing. Not even Java in its purest form can match the ease of integration and distributed data interchange that Web services offer.

IT organizations have no shortage of ways to implement Web services. Open source offers dozens of tools to do it, including Apache, Perl, Python, and PHP. Microsoft provides the .Net framework. And Java shops, of course, can implement Web services on the same platform they’re using to run their current Web applications, the J2EE application server.

For Java developers the evolution to Web services simply seems the next logical step. Not surprisingly, then, commercial J2EE platform vendors have also jumped on the bandwagon, weaving special Web services capabilities into their development tools and application servers. How important are these features in smoothing the creation and deployment of Web services? How real are their advantages over open source? Which J2EE application server is the best platform for Web services?

To find out, we rounded up the two leading commercial J2EE servers, BEA Systems’ WebLogic and IBM’s WebSphere, plus a solid also-ran, Sybase’s EAServer, and the most popular open source J2EE server, JBoss, and we put them to the test. Deploying Web services on each of these platforms, we evaluated their related management capabilities as well as their support for the core Web services standards, SOAP, XML-RPC (Remote Procedure Call), WSDL, and UDDI. We also looked for flexible configuration and a set of features, such as support for JMX (Java Management eXtensions), JNDI (Java Naming and Directory Interface), JMS (Java Messaging Service), and JTA (Java Transaction API), that we would expect in any enterprise-class Java platform.

In our test scenario, we implemented a multitier supply chain composed of four Web services. One service allowed a retail customer to buy a product from a retailer. A second service allowed the retailer, in turn, to purchase wholesale goods from a supplier. A third allowed the wholesaler to purchase raw materials from a parts supplier. Finally, a fourth service allowed all of these parties to track their shipments. We coded all of the business logic in Java, and created adapters to implement each component as a Web service.

The chief benefit of Web services is flexibility — allowing application logic to be changed without altering the service interface and disrupting business partners. Deploying, modifying, redeploying, and ensuring that your Web services are always available are the key ingredients of a successful Web services recipe. Therefore, our test focused on how smoothly our four solutions handled these tasks. For more details, see the “How We Tested” sidebar that accompanies this article at

The Open Source Alternative

To compete with the commercial contenders, our open source solution would need several elements. We chose JBoss 3.2.1 as our application server because it’s generally considered the most popular and most feature-rich open source J2EE application server available. Apache Tomcat 5.0 served as our servlet engine, and Apache Axis as the SOAP implementation.

Installing all these tools was simple. Unlike the commercial solutions, JBoss and Tomcat require no fancy installation routines. Simply unzip or untar (depending on the platform) the application files into your directory, and you’re off and running, no thinking required. And because of the small size and simplicity of the installation, it’s easy to create hands-off installation scripts that won’t clobber your network.

The downside of the easy installation turned out to be a lack of configuration options afterwards. All we had for JBoss were two basic tools, the Application Manager and the Administration tool. Both are functional, but sparse in features and customizability — either you work their way or you use something else. Even so, you’ll find most of the features you need for enterprise manageability as long as you familiarize yourself with JMX (Java Management eXtensions). The JBoss architecture is based on JMX and MBeans, and the server uses a variation of the JMX Mlet syntax to specify configuration information.

Compared with the GUI-based tools provided in WebLogic, WebSphere, and EAServer, the management features in Axis, Tomcat, and JBoss were mediocre. We found it more difficult to administer our open source server than any of the commercial solutions, mainly because of the depth of knowledge required to customize or change anything.

Expertise is also required to take advantage of advanced features. For example, implementing server clustering requires proper manipulation of MBean syntax at the server command line and in the supporting application.

Moreover, JBoss lacked tools for managing large, multiserver enterprise installations. On the upside, once our server was configured correctly, we hardly needed to manage it at all — it just kept chugging along. And some third-party management tools, such as performance management and Web services orchestration software, are available for JBoss, thanks to partnerships with several open source vendors.

In our deployment test we took our standard J2EE .war (Web Archive) file and deployed it using the Tomcat Application Manager without any fuss. We had several options in deployment tools, including the Tomcat Application Manager, the popular open source Ant tool, or an XML configuration file. There was no need to restart the server after deployment. We simply deployed and started accessing.

Undeployment was also uneventful, once we got the hang of our management tools. We were able to remove the application without a restart. We also had the option of simply stopping the application without removing it and taking it off-line for reconfiguration. As with WebSphere, however, we did have to restart the server after we modified our application and redeployed it.

One thing that was apparent from our testing was that JBoss supports all the relevant standards. It just doesn’t do so via menus, wizards, or cute talking icons; you’ve got to know J2EE and Java syntax. If you fall into that category, JBoss can provide a granularity of application control rivaled only by the Web Services SDK offered by IBM.

Further, although this review paints JBoss as functional though Spartan, changes are on the way. The upcoming version, JBoss 4.0, promises exciting new features, including an enhanced JMX microkernel that will allow features and components to be added individually; that means no additional overhead for resources you don’t use. And a new programming framework, called AOP (Aspect Oriented Programming), means development teams can enable plain old Java objects to mimic J2EE-like functionality or even add EJB-like transaction attributes to them. The battle between commercial tools and open source innovation is far from over.

Web Services Workshop

BEA’s WebLogic was the first commercial product we tested following our initial open source test, and differences were apparent right away. WebLogic offers a full range of configuration options, a rich set of enterprise-class features, and an elegant GUI for implementing them. Not only did everything run correctly out of the box, but we were up and running in only a few minutes — that’s impressive for an enterprise-oriented development environment.

We were also impressed by the flexibility of the installation process, which was streamlined and simple, allowing us to quickly pick and choose which components to install and which to register as services on a Windows server. One helpful addition would be a scripted, hands-free installation process that would make it easier to install on multiple servers.

Once installed, configuring WebLogic held a few surprises. Chief among these was the frequency with which we had to reboot the server. This was surprising from two perspectives. First, WebLogic is written in 100 percent Java, which generally means fewer reboots. Secondly, WebLogic is designed as an enterprise-level application platform, so it’s difficult to understand why BEA would force you to bounce your production server for configuration changes as slight as switching the HTTP listen port. BEA does provide hot deployment support for JSPs and EJBs, but has yet to deliver hot  deployment to the Web services arena.

These gripes aside, the flexibility we saw in WebLogic’s installation process carried through to server configuration. For example, there is an extensive set of configuration options for individual server instances, allowing you to reconfigure practically every aspect of the basic configuration, the cluster, the deployment, and performance tuning. There is also support for Ant-based Web service configuration tools providing built-in compliance checking.

Although they weren’t part of our test, a number of new enterprise-oriented management and configuration tools are available that we liked very much. For example, there is an enhanced domain configuration wizard and wizards for setting up server clusters, writing security policies, and even configuring database pools.

During testing, WebLogic performed well, but with a few gotchas. First, we were required to make changes to our application in order for it to function on WebLogic. Second, although we tried, we weren’t able to deploy our test application directly from the server console. Instead we had to use BEA’s new companion IDE, WebLogic Workshop. Third, after we deployed our application, it was easy to reconfigure via the console, but every change required a server reboot.

WebLogic Workshop also had its share of ups and downs. A time-saving tool for creating J2EE apps and Web services, Workshop provides a visual development environment similar to Microsoft’s Visual Studio. Additionally, Workshop provides a run-time framework that manages service deployment, and also adds testing and debugging features. All the ingredients for a successful IDE are here, but Workshop was still a little raw, even from our limited testing perspective.

For example, Workshop’s import function requires all Web service code files to be renamed with a .jws (Java Web Services) extension, and this has to be done with an additional modification required for serviced methods. It would also be nice if Workshop made some effort to recognize service methods, even if it simply presented developers with a drop-down list of possible choices. As it is, you have to delve into your code and add a special “@” tag to the JavaDoc in order for the IDE to recognize the service method being used. From a company like BEA, we expected a little more from import features, such as allowing you to select which source files are Web services and handling the renaming automatically.

Overall, despite a host of suggestions for how to improve WebLogic and its Workshop companion in upcoming versions, we found these tools performed quite well in our deploy-modify-redeploy testing scenario. Once you get used to Workshop’s naming and descriptor requirements, integration between IDE and server is actually quite impressive.

Entering the WebSphere

The first thing you notice about Websphere 5.0 and WSAD (WebSphere Studio Application Developer) are the CDs. It’s as if you opened up a promotional package from Columbia Records. After sifting through the 54 included discs, you’ll probably find what you’re looking for.

IBM ships the works — app servers for every operating system, clients for the same, the DB2 database management system, toolkits, deployment manager, a directory server, edge components, and more. Looking through all this stuff, it’s hard not to get the feeling that you’ve gotten your money’s worth.

Despite the overabundance, installation is fairly simple, though unexpectedly time-consuming. In fact, we had more trouble figuring out which CDs to install than we had installing them. You’ll even find an installation verifier that checks to make sure everything installed correctly.

Configuring WebSphere is also straightforward, and IBM has added some likeable new features. For one thing, we liked the log viewer. It’s not as easy to use as the one from Sybase, but it has a true log analyzer built in. Systems administrators will also like the Performance Viewer, which allows them to track summary reports on system resources, including EJB usage, HTTP usage, and more.

IBM has paid great attention to the needs of large, distributed Web service publishing environments. WebSphere’s network deployment options contain several wizard-style tools designed specifically for deploying, configuring, and managing Web services across a large number of servers and server clusters. Several of these tools can be automated, and for those of you married to the command line, IBM still provides plenty of functionality there as well.

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