Design and performance improvements with JDBC 4.0

Effectively utilize JDBC 4.0 to get desired results with less code

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Leverage nonstandard vendor implemented resources

The new JDBC API defines a java.sql.Wrapper interface. This interface provides the ability to access datasource-vendor-specific resources by retrieving the delegate instance using the corresponding wrapped proxy instance.

This Wrapper interface has 17 sub-interfaces as per the current specification and includes Connection, ResultSet, Statement, CallableStatement, PreparedStatement, DataSource, DatabaseMetaData, and ResultSetMetaData, among others in the list. This is an excellent design as it facilitates datasource-vedor-specific resource implementation at almost all stages of the query-creation and result-set-retrieval lifecycles.

The unwrap() method returns the object that implements the given interface to allow access to vendor-specific methods. The isWrapperFor() method returns a Boolean value. It returns true if it implements the interface, or if it directly or indirectly is a wrapper for the object.

As an example, when using Oracle, Oracle JDBC drivers provide update batching extensions that are better performing and more efficient as compared to the standard JDBC batch-updating mechanisms. For earlier JDBC versions, this implies using the Oracle-specific definitions, such as OraclePreparedStatement, in the code. This compromises code portability. With the new API, many such efficient implementations can be wrapped and exposed within the standard JDBC definitions.

Service provider mechanism for driver loading

In a nonmanaged or standalone program scenario, prior to JDBC 4.0, you would have to load the JDBC driver class explicitly by invoking the Class.forName method, as shown in Listing 4:

Listing 4. Class.forName

Class.forName ("com.driverprovider.jdbc.jdbcDriverImpl");

With JDBC 4.0, if the JDBC driver vendors package their drivers as services, defined under the server provider mechanism definitions as per the JAR specification, the DriverManager code would implicitly load the driver by searching for it in the classpath. The benefit of this mechanism is that the developer does not need to know about the specific driver class and can write a little less code when using JDBC. Also, since the driver class name is no longer in the code, a name change would not require recompilations. If multiple drivers are specified in the classpath, then DriverManger will try and establish a connection using the first driver it encounters in the classpath and iterate further if required.


In this article, I have discussed some of the new and improved features of JDBC 4.0. Many of these new features enhance a developer's productivity and facilitate development. Also, the specification does not eradicate the possible use of extra JDBC frameworks to provide templating facilities and advanced exception-handling capabilities. However, there is some criticism as well. Some believe that annotations effectively lead to hard-coding in code, which causes problems in code maintainability.

Shashank Tiwari (a.k.a. Shanky) is a software architect at Saven Technologies, an information technology company based out of Illinois. For more than seven years, he has been involved with architecting high-performance distributed applications using J2EE. He advises investment banking and financial service companies in building robust, quantitative, data intensive, and scalable software applications. He is also an ardent supporter of open source software. He is one of the maintainers of the Python GUI framework called anygui. He lives with his wife and son in New York. More information about him can be accessed at

This story, "Design and performance improvements with JDBC 4.0" was originally published by JavaWorld.

Copyright © 2006 IDG Communications, Inc.

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