When IT projects fail, who gets the blame? IT, of course. But with failure rates for projects often over 50 percent, the truth is, there's an awful lot of blame to go around.
I had a refreshing talk with Lewis Cardin, senior analyst at Forrester Research, about why IT projects fail, and he has a different point of view.
IT's project responsibilities
Over time, IT has become a "demand management" organization that is asked to add its kind of creativity to the products and services the business requires.
The business may seek to capitalize on an investment opportunity, or it may demand a specific project of IT, with a specified start and end date, and particular deliverables in mind. And then there are infrastructure demands, such as keeping the lights on, running the telecommunications network, supporting a BlackBerry rollout.
Historically, the PMO (program management office) has been the mechanism within IT that takes the project and, working with IT project managers, makes sure there is "excellence," as Cardin puts it, in project delivery in terms of scheduling, costs, and requirements.
Of course, when you have a number of competing opportunities, the PMO is also responsible for prioritizing projects. It has to know which project comes first, which delivers the most value, and so on. And it is on IT to figure out how to optimize the people and financial resources across active projects.
Usually, the PMO does all this with oversight from a governance or steering committee. That steering committee needs to be there in some form to make investment decisions based on business case scenarios, for example. After a project gets the nod on investment, the committee must assess its priority and decide how funding will be approved.
All of these things enable IT to go ahead and do the work once the steering committee consents.
As the project continues, the PMO works with the program manager to build the project plans and sort out the interdependencies and details of financing, so everyone understands what is needed.
Then it is the job of the PMO to make sure milestones and deliverables have been met before it goes to the next round. You might call this part risk management.
Does planning make perfect?
After reviewing all of the key components of managing a project I had only one question for Cardin.
"Lewis, you make it sound as if, with all of this oversight and planning, a project can't fail and that every project is going to be a roaring success. Yet over 50 percent of projects fail. How do you explain that?" I asked.
"What I discovered," he told me, "is that when you peel back the onion the project isn't failing."