The U.S. Senate's comprehensive immigration bill would make major changes to the H-1B visa that are certain to upset some and likely please others. The H-1B changes would likely most upset India's offshore industry.
IT service firms that rely heavily on H-1B and L-1 visas would be hit with new rules intended to "crack down" on the use of H-1B visas "to outsource American jobs," according to an outline of the bill prepared by senate staff.
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This bill has the potential of disrupting offshoring outsourcing firms, saddling them with visa fees of as much as $10,000, and the eventual limitation of H-1B and L-1 workers to 50 percent of an employer's workforce. More than half the U.S.-based workforces of many offshore firms are foreign workers holding temporary visas.
But the bill may please some U.S. based tech firms by raising the 65,000 base H-1B cap to 110,000 upon passage. The cap could reach 180,000 based on a formula that considers visa demand as well as the unemployment rates of managers and professionals.
These are just a few of the major changes sought by the Senate's so-called "Gang of Eight" in their comprehensive immigration bill, dubbed the "Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act of 2013."
Leading the effort is Sen. Chuck Schumer (D-NY), head of the Senate's immigration subcommittee. The other "Gang of Eight" members are Sens. John McCain (R-Ariz.), Richard Durbin (D-Ill.), Lindsey Graham (R-S.C.), Robert Menendez (D- N.J.), Marco Rubio (R-Fla.), Michael Bennet (D-Col.) and Jeff Flake (R-Ariz.).
Two of the senators have been vocal critics of the H-1B visa by offshore IT service firm. Schumer once said that the visa has created "multinational temp agencies" that undercut U.S. wages. Durbin, along with Sen. Chuck Grassley, has in the past proposed limiting large H-1B and L-1 visa use to 50 percent of an employer's U.S. workforce. Durbin's earlier proposal is included in the new bill.
The new bill would also increase the 20,000 H-1B visa cap for advanced degree graduates of U.S. universities to 25,000, while advanced degree holders in STEM fields (science, technology, engineering and math) have other options. The bill exempts doctoral degree holders in STEM subjects from employment-based green card limits, and gives preference to foreigners with a master's degree or higher in those majors from an accredited school and with a job offer in a related field. In total, the two proposed new caps would raise the possible maximum number of H-1B visas to 205,000.
The bill also requires H-1B employers to pay higher wages to the foreign workers. How much higher isn't clear, but the goal is to "prevent H-1B workers from undercutting the wages paid to American workers by requiring employers to pay significantly higher wages for H-1B workers than under current law," according to the Senate outline.