1924: Taking the name from a Canadian affiliate, C-T-R formally becomes International Business Machines.
1928: The 80-column IBM punched card, doubling prior capacity, is unveiled and remains a standard for 50 years.
1931: A watershed year in advances: IBM 400 accounting machines offer alphabetic data, the 600 series calculating machines perform multiplication and division, and the first automatic multiplying punch and reproducing punch machines are introduced.
1933: IBM acquires Electromatic Typewriters, acquiring entry in the typewriter business, which ultimately leads to innovations in word processing.
1936: Watson, Sr.'s, insistence on making machines during the Depression, even when demand dried up, pays off when IBM is in a position to participate in what was then billed as the biggest accounting operation of all time: supplying punched-card equipment to the U.S. government in the wake of the 1935 Social Security Act.
1937: Watson, Sr., is elected president of the International Chamber of Congress, and at a Berlin meeting promotes "World Peace Through Trade," taken on as a slogan by the ICC and IBM. Germany awards him with an Order of the German Eagle medal. He returns the medal in 1940, enraging the fascist government, but IBM's business in Germany in the 1930s stirs criticism over the years.
1944: IBM's first large-scale computer, the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator or the Mark I, is the first machine to accomplish long operations automatically, using electromechanical relays.
1946: IBM's 603 Electronic Multiplier is the first commercially available machine to offer electronic arithmetic circuits. It is more than 50 feet long and eight feet high, and weighs almost five tons.
1948: IBM releases the Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator, a large-scale digital calculating machine that uses electromechanical relays and offers for the first time the ability to modify a stored program.
1952: The IBM 701 is IBM's first production electronic computer, featuring tape-drive technology that ultimately led to the ascendance of magnetic tape.
1952: Thomas J. Watson, Jr., becomes IBM's president. He was a force behind the 701, essentially a bet-the-company stance on electronic computers before they became more cost-effective than electromechanical machines, leading the way for IBM to dominate computing for the next few decades during the mainframe era.
1956: A consent decree ends a 1952 U.S. antitrust suit, as IBM adapts a more liberal policy toward licensing equipment.
1956: Watson, Jr., takes over as CEO in May, before the death of his father in June. Watson, Jr., moves to reorganize IBM along divisional lines, based on a "line and staff" concept that is adopted by American business at large.
1957: IBM introduces Fortran, which becomes the main language for technical work and is used to this day.
1961: The Selectric typewriter is released; later models offer memory and give rise to modern word processing.
1964: The IBM System/360 uses solid logic technology (solid state) microelectronics and introduces the concept of a family of computers that share compatible technology, in what was essentially a $5 billion bet on future trends.
1966: IBM's Robert Dennard invents the dynamic random access memory (DRAM) cell, which remains an industry standard.
1969: IBM technology including an onboard computer used in first manned flight to the moon.