A solo Iranian hacker on Saturday claimed responsibility for stealing multiple SSL certificates belonging to some of the Web's biggest sites, including Google, Microsoft, Skype, and Yahoo.
Early reaction from security experts was mixed, with some believing the hacker's claim, while others were dubious.
[ Also on InfoWorld.com, Woody Leonhard asks how Comodo could have let the attackers in, and Robert Lemos examines the implications of the breach on the larger security community. | Learn how to secure your Web browsers in InfoWorld's "Web Browser Security Deep Dive" PDF guide. ]
Last week, conjecture had focused on a state-sponsored attack, perhaps funded or conducted by the Iranian government, that hacked a certificate reseller affiliated with U.S.-based Comodo.
On March 23, Comodo acknowledged the attack, saying that eight days earlier, hackers had obtained nine bogus certificates for the log-on sites of Microsoft's Hotmail, Google's Gmail, the Internet phone and chat service Skype, and Yahoo Mail. A certificate for Mozilla's Firefox add-on site was also acquired.
SSL certificates validate the legitimacy of a website to the browser, assuring users that they're connecting to the real site, and that the traffic between their browsers and the site is encrypted.
Comodo CEO Melih Abdulhayoglu said last week that circumstantial evidence pointed to a state-backed attack and claimed the Iranian government was probably behind it. "We believe these are politically motivated, state-driven/funded attacks," said Abdulhayoglu.
He based his opinion on the fact that only Iran's government -- which could jigger the country's DNS to funnel traffic through fake sites secured by the stolen certificates -- would benefit.
In Abdulhayoglu's analysis, authorities could have used the certificates to dupe antigovernment activists into believing they were at a legitimate Yahoo Mail site, for example. In reality, however, the phony sites would have collected usernames and passwords, and thus given the government access to their email or Skype accounts.
On Sunday, a single hacker took responsibility for the Comodo attack, backing up his claim with decompiled code.
"I'm not a group of hacker [sic], I'm single hacker with experience of 1,000 hackers," wrote the attacker in a post on Pastebin.com late Saturday. He called himself "ComodoHacker" and said he's 21 years old.
ComodoHacker alleged that he had gained full access to InstantSSL.it, the Italian arm of Comodo's InstantSLL certificate selling service, then decompiled a DLL file he found on its server to uncover the reseller account's username and password.
With the username and password in hand, said ComodoHacker, he was able to generate the nine certificates, "all in about 10 to 15 minutes." His message was signed "Janam Fadaye Rahbar," which reportedly means "I will sacrifice my soul for my leader."
The InstantSLL.it website is currently offline.
Robert Graham, the CEO of Errata Security, believes ComodoHacker is telling a straight story.