Two researchers yesterday won $10,000 each at the Pwn2Own hacking contest by bypassing important security measures of Windows 7.
Both Peter Vreugdenhil of the Netherlands and a German researcher who only would give his first name of Nils, found ways to disable DEP (data execution prevention) and ASLR (address space layout randomization), two of Windows 7's most vaunted anti-exploit features. Each faced down the fully-patched 64-bit version of Windows 7 and came out the winner.
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Vreugdenhil used a two-exploit combination to circumvent first ASLR, then DEP, to successfully hack IE8. A half hour later, Nils bypassed the same defensive mechanisms to exploit Mozilla's Firefox 3.6. For their efforts, each was awarded the notebook they attacked, $10,000 in cash and a paid trip to the DefCon hackers conference in Las Vegas this July.
"Every exploit today has been top-notch," said Aaron Portnoy, security research team lead with 3Com TippingPoint, the contest sponsor, and the organizer of Pwn2Own, in an interview at the end of the day Wednesday. "The one on IE8 was particularly impressive."
Vreugdenhil, a freelance vulnerability researcher, explained how he bypassed DEP and ASLR. To outwit ASLR -- which randomly shuffles the positions of key memory areas to make it much more difficult for hackers to predict whether their attack code will actually run -- Vreugdenhil used a heap overflow vulnerability that allowed him to obtain the base address of a .dll module IE8 loads into memory. He then used that to run his DEP-skirting exploit.
DEP, which Microsoft introduced in 2004 with Windows XP Service Pack 2, prevents malicious code from executing in sections of memory not intended for code execution and is a defense against, among other things, buffer overflow attacks.
"[The exploit] reuses Microsoft's own code to disable DEP," said Vreugdenhil. "You can reuse Microsoft's own code to disable memory protection." In a paper he published today ( download PDF ), Vreugdenhil spelled out how he evaded both ASLR and DEP in more detail.
"It was a two-step exploitation," Vreugdenhil said of the unusual attack. "I could have done it with one, but it would have taken too long." Using the double-exploit technique gave him control of the machine in a little over two minutes; if he had used only one exploit, the task would have required 50-60 minutes.
"I didn't know how much time I would have at Pwn2Own," he said, referring to the constraints of the contest, where hackers had limited time slots. And he didn't want to bore his audience. "I put some eye candy in the exploit," he said, referring to a progress bar he inserted that read "Please be patient while you are being exploited..."
"It feels great," said Vreugdenhil of winning. "But I was nervous. I was convinced that there would be other exploits for IE8." This year's Pwn2Own was a first-come, first-served contest: The first researcher to hack each browser would win $10,000, but the second would take home nothing.
Nils also sidestepped DEP and ASLR in Windows 7 when he exploited the newest version of Firefox later in the day. Like Vreugdenhil, Nils also was awarded the notebook and $10,000. This was Nils' second Pwn2Own; last year he grabbed $15,000 by exploiting not only Firefox, but Safari and IE8 as well. "As usual, Nils' exploit was very thorough," said TippingPoint's Portnoy.