Smartphone OS vendors have a problem. For all their hype about their respective platforms and the amazing features of the smartphones that run them, let's face it: Barring the odd marquee feature such as Siri, all smartphones function pretty much alike.
They all can handle voice calls, text messaging, and email. They can all manage contacts, calendars, and to-do lists. They can integrate with Facebook and other social networks. They can take photos, play videos, and browse the Web.
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There are really only two details that distinguish one smartphone platform from another: One is the size of its app catalog, which depends on independent developers; the other is the look and feel of the platform itself. As the worlds of computing and consumer electronics converge, user experience increasingly becomes a platform vendor's calling card.
Apple always understood this better than anyone. The unique UI of the iPhone and other iOS devices gave Apple an early lead in the mobile device market. But now Google and Microsoft are both placing renewed emphasis on their platforms' user experience. That means not just increased competition among smartphone and tablet platforms, but also new challenges for mobile application developers.
Copying Apple's playbook
In the 1980s, Apple became the first company to propose a set of standard Human Interface Guidelines for personal computing. It continued the practice as its platform evolved; due to these decisions, Mac OS X is inarguably the most aesthetically beautiful Unix-like OS ever produced.
Microsoft has been accused of ripping off Mac OS for its Windows UI, and rightly so. But while Windows copied practically all of the function of Mac OS, it fell short on form. Simply put, early versions of Windows were ugly, and the GUI often felt clumsy and slipshod. The situation has improved with each new major version, albeit gradually. For Windows 8, however, Microsoft is pulling out all stops.
That's a greater degree of integration and uniformity than even Apple has attempted so far. Mac OS X and iOS remain distinct platforms, despite persistent rumors that Apple may one day try to merge them. (The late Steve Jobs hinted at an eventual Mac/iOS merger when he was Apple's CEO.)
Meanwhile, Google has similarly been accused of aping iOS with its Android platform. One of the criticisms of Android, however, is that Google has given smartphone vendors too much control over their handsets' UIs. The proliferation of vendor-designed skins means you can never be certain how the UI of your particular Android phone will look or behave.