Tiobe Managing Director Paul Jansen attributes Dart's leap to its principal backer: Google. "They push it a lot, and everything Google does gets attention. I think Google will have to show what they really want with Dart in 2015."
For this year, Tiobe anticipates gains from Swift, which was introduced last June. "Objective-C will probably lose its dominant position in mobile app development, whereas Java and Swift will gain traction in that field. Java might even become No. 1 of the Tiobe index again," Tiobe said. Java recently has been No. 2 behind the C language.
"Swift will certainly take share away from Objective-C, but because mobile app development for Apple devices is not rising any more, it will go slower than expected," Jansen said. "Java benefits from its dominant position in the Android ecosystem. There will be competitors in the Android area, but Java will stay for a long while."
Other trends in programming include modeling and big data, according to Tiobe. "Here, MATLAB and R appear to be the market leaders. There is a realistic chance that they will enter the top 10 in 2015," Tiobe said.
For 2014, other big movers in Tiobe's index include PL/SQL (1.38 percent increase in share) and Perl (1.33 percent). "The only thing I can think of for the jump of PL/SQL and Perl is rather technical," said Jansen. "Objective-C lost a lot of market share for some search engines. This concerned search engines that had a relative high score for PL/SQL and Perl. As a consequence both PL/SQL and Perl got better scores."
The PyPL Popularity of Programming Language index, which analyzes Google searches on language tutorials, named Swift its Language of the Year for 2014. Swift had a rating of 3 percent for 2014 and ranked ninth on PyPL's index for the month, jumping past two long-established languages: Ruby and Visual Basic.