Changes in topology are coordinated by an orchestrator, which is a server node elected to be the single arbiter of cluster configuration changes. All topology changes are sent to all nodes in the cluster; even if the orchestrator node goes down, a new node can be elected to that position and system operation can continue uninterrupted.
Couchbase supports cross-data-center replication (XDCR), which provides live replication of database contents of one Couchbase cluster to a geographically remote cluster. Note that XDCR operates simultaneously with intracluster replication (the copying of live documents to their inactive replica counterparts on other cluster members), and all systems in an XDCR arrangement invisibly synchronize with one another. However, Couchbase does not provide automatic fail-over for XDCR arrangements, relying instead on techniques such as using a load-balancing mechanism to reroute traffic at the network layer, in which case the XDCR group will have been set up in a master-master configuration.
Couchbase indexing and queries
Queries on Couchbase Server are performed via "views," Couchbase terminology for indexes. Put another way, when you create an index, you're provided with a view that serves as your mechanism for querying Couchbase data. Views are new to Couchbase 2.0, as is the incremental
mapreduce engine that powers the actual creation of views. Note that queries really didn't exist prior to Couchbase Server 2.0. Until this latest release, the database was a key/value storage system that simply did not understand the concept of a multifield document.
mapreduce operations that create the view's index. Design documents are bound to specific buckets, which means that queries cannot execute across multiple buckets. Couchbase's "eventual consistency" plays a role in views as well. If you add a new document to a bucket or update an existing document, the change may not be immediately visible.
map function in a design document's
mapreduce specification filters and extracts information from the documents against which it executes. The result is a set of key/value pairs that comprise the query-accelerating index. The
reduce function is optional. It is typically used to aggregate or sum the data manipulated by the
map operation. Code in the reduce function can be used to implement operations that correspond roughly to SQL's
SORT, and aggregation features.
Couchbase Server supplies built-in reduce functions:
_sum. These built-in functions are optimized beyond what would be possible if written from scratch. For example, the
_count function (which counts the number of rows returned by the
map function) doesn't have to recount all the documents when called. If an item is added to or removed from the associated index, the count is incremented or decremented appropriately, so the
_count function need merely retrieve the maintained value.
Query parameters offer further filtering of an index. For example, you can use query parameters to define a query that returns a single entry or a specified range of entries from within an index. In addition, in Couchbase 2.0, document metadata is available. The usefulness of this becomes apparent when building
mapreduce functions, as the
map function can employ metadata to filter documents based on parameters such as expiration date and revision number.
Couchbase indexes are updated incrementally. That is, when an index is updated, it's not reconstructed wholesale. Updates only involve those documents that have been changed or added or removed since the last time the index was updated. You can configure an index to be updated when specific circumstances occur. For example, you might configure an index to be updated whenever a query is issued against it. That, however, might be computationally expensive, so an alternative is to configure the index to be updated only after a specified number of documents within the view have been modified. Still another alternative is to have the view updated based on a time interval.
Whatever configuration you choose, it's important to realize that a design document can hold multiple views and the configuration applies to all views in the document. If you update one index, all indexes in the document will be updated.
Finally, Couchbase distinguishes between development and production views, and the two are kept in separate namespaces. Development views can be modified; production views cannot. The reason for the distinction arises from the fact that, if you modify a view, all views in that design document will be invalidated, and all indexes defined by
mapreduce functions in the design document will be rebuilt. Therefore, development views enable you to test your view code in a kind of sandbox before deploying it into a production view.
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