Bash supports tab completion, which means that if you type only a few characters of a filename or command, then hit the Tab key, Bash will automatically complete the rest of the name. Tab completion often comes in handy, especially with large file names. Bash is smart about this. It knows when you're trying to enter a command or reference a file, and if you don't type enough unique characters to define a single command or file, it will show you the options that fit the characters you entered.
A few command options come in handy when performing normal file system navigation. The
-la option causes
ls to show more information about the files and directories in the current directory. It will show permissions, owner, size, and the time stamp for each file and directory. Another handy command is
-lat, which will show a list of files with the newest files at the top:
[myname@lab1 ~]$ ls -lat
You might find that in some directories there are so many files that the list scrolls off the top of the terminal window. This is where one of the most fundamental aspects of shell interaction comes into play: the Unix pipe.
The pipe is represented by the vertical bar, |. It functions just as you might guess, allowing the output of one command to be "piped" into the input of another command. This allows you to string together many commands at once to modify the output on the screen, to cause certain actions to be taken on a set of files, or something similar.
For example, we might want to use the
less command to introduce pagination into our file listing. Thus, we would enter:
[myname@lab1 ~]$ ls -lat | less
This would pass the output of the
ls -lat command to
less command allows us to view the output a page at a time by pressing the space bar or to advance the text by pressing the Enter key.
Another common example of using a pipe is to manipulate entries in a text file. For instance, we might have a file named names.txt that has hundreds or thousands of names entered, one per line, like so:
Notice that the file contains some duplicates. Let's say we want to alphabetize the list and remove the duplicate entries. This can quickly and easily be done with one line:
[myname@lab1 ~]$ sort names.txt | uniq
This command causes the shell to invoke the
sort tool to sort the list, then pipe the output to
uniq, which removes all the duplicate lines. Now, we probably want that output to go into another file, so we'd instruct the shell to create a new file and place the output there:
[myname@lab1 ~]$ sort names.txt | uniq > sortednames.txt
Here we've used shell output redirection to create the new file called sortednames.txt with the output of the previous commands. The shell uses
> as directional markers, as well as
>>. There's a vital difference between these, as the single
> will cause a file to be overwritten, whereas
>> will cause the output to be appended to any data already in the file. It's important to get this straight early on, or you may find that you have unwittingly deleted the contents of a file that you intended to add content to.
< symbol is used to direct text or command output from one file to another or back to a program. For instance, you might have a file that contains some commands that you want another program to run. Thus, you might enter:
[myname@lab1 ~]$ myprogram < ./mycommands.txt
Many other Bash operators can be used in normal shell sessions or in Bash scripting, but we've covered the major ones. A full listing can be found in the Bash man page, which is accessible by typing
man bash. It's a lengthy document, but then again, shells do quite a lot, and all of that functionality needs to be documented.